UC Berkeley and UC San Francisco Joint Symposium
Advancing science and policy to accelerate the global fight against Tuberculosis
July 11, 2017 | 1:00-3:30 pm | David Brower Center, Berkeley
Dr. Adithya Cattamanchi’s research is focused on two thematic areas: 1) Development and evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and 2) Implementation and dissemination of evidence-based preventative, diagnostic, and treatment interventions for TB. Cattamanchi has considerable experience with the evaluation of TB diagnostics in low-income countries, including studying the impact of new diagnostics on patient- and public health-important outcomes. He has served on several World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Group panels to develop new policies related to TB diagnostics and serve as a faculty member for the Advanced Tuberculosis Diagnostics Research workshop sponsored by the WHO Stop TB Partnership. He has initiated a number of collaborations with engineers in industry and academia to develop and evaluate new diagnostic platforms for TB including: 1) mobile phone-based microscopy; 2) mobile phone-based molecular diagnostic platforms; and 3) single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry. We are currently evaluating the mobile phone-based microscopy platform and health centers in Hanoi, Vietnam in a demonstration project funded by the TB REACH initiative. In addition to research on TB diagnostics, he has developed an active research agenda related to implementation science, and has helped establish a platform for monitoring the quality of TB care at 6 rural health centers in Uganda (Uganda Tuberculosis Surveillance Project). His current work, supported through an NIH/NIAID R21 in Implementation and Dissemination Science, is focused on improving the quality of TB suspect evaluation at these health centers.
Dr. Jeff Cox is a world leader in the study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterial pathogen that has infected about one third of the world’s population. His research applies aspects of immunology, cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics in an effort to understand how an infected individual responds to M. tuberculosis and how the bacterium can thwart this response. Although many potential TB treatments have been vigorously pursued, conventional strategies have failed to eradicate TB. Cox believes that failure results in part from the fact that such attempts have neglected to take into account the deeply integrated, symbiotic-like relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its host that has developed over 40,000 years of human/bacterial co-evolution. The Cox research group aims to understand the key mechanisms that dictate the M. tuberculosis-human relationship with the goal of breaking these ties, targeting either host or pathogen factors to eliminate M. tuberculosis infection and, with that, to contribute to solving a steadily increasing threat in global health. In particular, while current vaccine strategies aimed at promoting specific immune responses (e.g. T-cells and cytokines) to various M. tuberculosis antigens have failed, the Cox group believes that promoting innate responses of host cell macrophages, the cell type where M. tuberculosis grows, represents an unconventional strategy to block bacterial infection.
Dr. Jennifer Flood is the Chief of the TB Control Branch, California Department of Public Health (CDPH). She is a driving force for innovation and collaboration in a state where the opportunities and challenges for TB elimination are ever present. One of Dr. Flood’s greatest contributions to TB elimination is her leadership in both building partnerships and as a champion for TB prevention. Under Dr. Flood’s guidance and leadership, in May 2015, the California TB Elimination Task Force convened to explore how best to address the opportunity to eliminate TB in California by 2040. This Task Force was a collaboration of CDPH, UCSF, and the California TB Controllers Association (CTCA), with funding from the California HealthCare Foundation. Through thoughtful analysis of the evidence base, the Task Force identified six key groups of interventions needed to reach TB elimination in California. In December 2015, Dr. Flood led the effort to assemble a diverse group of 50 stakeholders to share their perspectives on the Task Force recommendations. They group would also to inform the development of a statewide TB elimination action plan. The meeting was an unprecedented collaboration of key representatives from TB control and other public health programs, managed care, community-based organizations, border health, corrections, and implementation partners such as CITC. As a cornerstone in the elimination plan, Dr. Flood has placed TB prevention front and center through focused targeting of latent TB infection. In 2015, she led the CDPH/CTCA creation of a “TB Risk Assessment Tool” to help clinicians identify adults for latent TB infection testing who are at high-risk for TB exposure or progression to TB disease. Widespread implementation of this tool represents just one piece in the overall California TB elimination plan, but its utility as an adaptable tool has already found support across the country.
Dr. Eric Goosby was appointed by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as the UN Special Envoy on Tuberculosis (TB) in January 2015. As Special Envoy, Dr. Goosby works to raise the profile of the fight against TB and promote the adoption, financing and implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) global End TB Strategy and its international targets for tuberculosis prevention, care and control. Dr. Goosby himself contracted latent TB while working as a young doctor in San Francisco. Dr. Goosby has dedicated his professional life to tackling global health diseases, particularly HIV/AIDS and TB. Dr. Goosby’s HIV/AIDS work runs the gamut from treating patients to directing the United States’ largest foreign assistance program – the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). After serving four years in the U.S. State Department as Ambassador-at-Large and U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, Dr. Goosby returned to the University of California, San Francisco where he is Professor of Medicine and Director, Global Health Delivery and Diplomacy, Global Health Sciences. While at the State Department, he also led the Office of Global Health Diplomacy, advancing the United States’ global health mission to improve and save lives and foster sustainability through a shared global responsibility. As CEO and Chief Medical Officer of Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation, 2001-2009, he played a key role in the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS national treatment scale-up plans in South Africa, Rwanda, China and the Ukraine. During the Clinton Administration, Dr. Goosby was Director of the Ryan White Care Act at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and later, served as Deputy Director of the White House National AIDS Policy Office and Director of the Office of HIV/AIDS Policy at HHS.
Dr. Philip Hopewell is an internationally recognized pulmonologist, specifically acknowledged for his research in TB. Dr. Hopewell is professor of medicine, UCSF Department of Medicine. He practices clinical pulmonary and critical care medicine at San Francisco General Hospital and provides consultation and technical assistance to the World Health Organization and numerous TB programs in high-burden countries. Dr. Hopewell is the founding director and principal investigator of the Curry International Tuberculosis Center, a CDC-funded model center that provides education, technical assistance and training in TB to domestic and international audiences. Dr. Hopewell was co-developer of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. Dr. Hopewell’s work has been widely recognized, by his pulmonary colleagues with the E.L. Trudeau Award from the American Thoracic Society, and by former students and academic colleagues with the University of California, San Francisco Lifetime Achievement in Mentoring Award.
Dr. Midori Kato-Maeda’s research activities focus on the study of the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its impact on the varying outcomes of tuberculosis transmission and pathogenesis, as well as its transmission dynamics.
Her research group has demonstrated that the classification of MTB based on lineages and sublineages has a biological meaning, as some sublineages of MTB strains are more likely to cause secondary cases. She has collaborations with the San Francisco Department of Public Health Division of Tuberculosis, CDC, and other academic institutions in United States and abroad including Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Panama. Dr. Kato-Maeda participates in teaching activities related to the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis as well as research management involving laboratory components. She also facilitates laboratory meetings for the tuberculosis research community at SFGH/UCSF. Dr. Kato-Maeda also serves as a consultant for laboratory aspects of the Tuberculosis Control Program, and is a consultant to numerous research projects related to tuberculosis.
Dr. Aaron Motsoaledi is the Minister of Health of South Africa. He was formerly an MECc in the Limpopo province for transport, agriculture and environment, and education. Motsoaledi is a medical doctor by training. He holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery from the University of Natal. Motsoaledi ran a successful surgery in the small rural town of Jane Furse prior to his appointment in government. Prior to his appointment as Minister of Health of the Republic of South Africa, Motsoaledi had served as a Chairperson of the Sekhukhune Advice Office from 1986 to 1994; as a Chairperson of Hlahlolanang Health and Nutrition Education Project in 1989; as a Deputy Chairperson of the African National Congress (ANC) in the then Northern Transvaal from 1991 to 1992; as Head of the ANC Elections Commission for Limpopo Province in 1994; as Head of the ANC Economic and Infrastructure Desk and as Head of the ANC Research and Briefing of election Task Team in Limpopo in 1994. The Minister administered to the first South African state patient a fixed dose combination (FDC) Antiretroviral tablet of Emtricitabine/Tenofovir/Efavirenz on 9 April 2013 in GaRankuwa. He was elected as Chair of the Stop TB Partnership Co-coordinating Board in July 2013, and re-elected in January 2016 to serve a second term.
Dr. Niren Murthy is a professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Murthy received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in Seattle in Bioengineering in 2001, and then did Postdoctoral research at U.C. Berkeley in Chemistry from 2001-2003. He started his academic career at Georgia Tech in 2003 and in 2012 moved back to U.C. Berkeley. Dr. Murthy’s laboratory is an interdisciplinary laboratory that focuses on the development of new materials for drug delivery and molecular imaging. Murthy laboratory has developed several new biomaterials and imaging agents, such as the maltodextrin based imaging agents, which are focused on improving the treatment and diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition, Murthy laboratory has developed numerous reagents for detecting radical oxidants, such as the hydrocyanines.
Dr. Payam Nahid conducts clinical trials and translational research in TB with the goal of improving the care of patients with TB and HIV/TB worldwide. His research is conducted both in the United States and internationally, specifically in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The research team in Vietnam conducts NIH and CDC-funded field studies of new TB diagnostics, Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in TB therapeutics (as part of the CDC-TB Trials Consortium) and latent TB infection treatment implementation studies (sponsored by CDC-Division of Global Migration and Quarantine), in close partnership with the Vietnam National TB Program, the Vietnam National Lung Hospital, the Hanoi Lung Hospital, Cho Ray Hospital and the Vietnam National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology. Nahid is protocol co-chair of an international, FDA-registration trial evaluating daily, high dose rifapentine-based shortened regimens for drug susceptible TB, conducted by the CDC-TB Trials Consortium in partnership with the NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Group. With funding from NIH NIAID and in collaboration with bench and translational scientists, he also led TB biomarker discovery and qualification programs to identify improved biomarkers of treatment effect. He maintains an active academic clinical practice and attend at the Chest Clinic at San Francisco General Hospital, on the inpatient pulmonary service, the medical intensive care unit, and at the SFDPH TB Control Clinic. Nahid provides clinical TB consultation and trainings as part of the CDC-funded UCSF Curry International Tuberculosis Center (www.currytbcenter.ucsf.edu), and has contributed to the development of U.S. and international practice guidelines for the treatment of TB.
Professor Madhukar Pai is a Canada Research Chair in Epidemiology & Global Health at McGill University, Montreal. He is the Director of McGill Global Health Programs, and Associate Director of the McGill International TB Centre. Madhu Pai did his medical training and community medicine residency in Vellore, India. He completed his PhD in epidemiology at UC Berkeley, and a postdoctoral fellowship at the UCSF. Madhu serves as a Consultant to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He serves on the STAG-TB committee of WHO, Geneva; Scientific Advisory Committee of FIND, Geneva; and Access Advisory Committee of TB Alliance, New York. He has previously served on the Coordinating Board of the Stop TB Partnership. He is on the editorial boards of Lancet Infectious Diseases, PLoS Medicine, eLife, PLoS ONE, International Journal of TB and Lung Disease, among others. Madhu’s research is mainly focused on improving the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, especially in high-burden countries like India and South Africa. His research is supported by grant funding from the Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. He has more than 300 publications. He is recipient of the Union Scientific Prize, Chanchlani Global Health Research Award, Haile T. Debas Prize, and David Johnston Faculty & Staff Award. He is a member of the Royal Society of Canada, and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences.
Dr. Patrick Phillips joined the Division of Pulmonology in July 2017, having previously been senior statistician at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL in London. He has worked on late-phase clinical trials in tuberculosis for more than a decade, most recently as trial statistician in the REMoxTB and RIFAQUIN phase III trials. He leads the statistics core of the African/European PanACEA consortium evaluating novel regimens for the treatment of TB, designing the PanACEA MAMS-TB phase II trial with a Multi-Arm Multi-Stage (MAMS) design. He is the lead statistician for the USAID-funded STREAM Stage 1 trial evaluating the new 9-month MDR-TB regimen. Ongoing methodological areas of interest include the evaluation and use of surrogate endpoints, the conduct and analysis of non-inferiority trials and trial design with a focus on adaptive designs.
Dr. Lee Riley is professor and head of the Division of Infectious Disease and Vaccinology and a member of the Division of Epidemiology at the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. He is a physician trained in both epidemiology and molecular biology research. He went to medical school at University of California, San Francisco, and completed a residency in internal medicine at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital in New York. After residency, he joined the Epidemic Intelligence Service at the CDC, and became an infectious disease fellow at Stanford University School of Medicine. The Riley Lab focuses on three general areas—1) basic biology of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis; 2) genetics of drug resistance and molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant infections; and 3) infectious diseases of urban slums in developing countries. Tuberculosis pathogenesis research currently focuses on delineating the mechanism of latency and reactivation from latency. In particular, the laboratory has been studying a family of operons called mce (mce1-4) that resemble ABC transporters, possibly involved in lipid transport across the cell wall of M. tuberculosis. Mutants disrupted in the operon are studied for their phenotype in mouse models. The basic pathogenesis research has led to several translational research activities, including the development of a new therapeutic/adjunctive TB vaccine and new biomarker-based diagnostic and prognostic tests for TB. Another basic research area involves characterizing the genetics of drug resistance in Gram negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens. The Riley Lab has launched a long-term project to identify every possible drug resistance genes in saprophytes in food that could potentially enter pathogens. The lab has field sites in Brazil and India where they conduct studies to assess burden of infectious diseases that are predominant in urban slum settlements, including leptospirosis, rheumatic heart disease, and TB.